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Deep dive into the Angular CLI

Angular5 min read

The Angular CLI is a command line interface for Angular. Its primary purpose is to assist developers with building Angular applications. Angular CLI was introduced together with the second version of Angular. Angular CLI allows you to generate and serving an Angular project as well as generate the Angular files (e.g. components, services, directives, pipes, interfaces, etc).

Angular CLI







Introduction

In order to start your work with Angular CLI you need to install it globally by running, npm install -g @angular/cli so you could be able to work with it within any folder.

There are certain pre-requirements which need to be installed first. Angular CLI is dependable on Node 6.9.0 or higher, as well as NPM version 3 or higher.

The simplest way to check which version of the Angular CLI is running on your machine, you can just simply run ng v command in the console. As an example output you should be able to see:

1Angular CLI: 1.6.7
2Node: 8.9.4
3OS: darwin x64



ng new

Using the Angular CLI makes it easy to create a new Angular application which works, right out of the box. It's worth to mention, that just created project follows the Angular style guide.

Let's see how it works in action. In terminal run ng new recipe-book. In this case recipe-book is an example project name, you can replace with anything you like.

The application generation process takes few minutes, in order to create components and install node modules. When the project is created, you should see a success message.

1$ ng new recipe-book
2create recipe-book/README.md (1027 bytes)
3create recipe-book/.angular-cli.json (1247 bytes)
4create recipe-book/.editorconfig (245 bytes)
5create recipe-book/.gitignore (529 bytes)
6create recipe-book/src/assets/.gitkeep (0 bytes)
7create recipe-book/src/environments/environment.prod.ts (51 bytes)
8create recipe-book/src/environments/environment.ts (387 bytes)
9create recipe-book/src/favicon.ico (5430 bytes)
10create recipe-book/src/index.html (298 bytes)
11create recipe-book/src/main.ts (370 bytes)
12create recipe-book/src/polyfills.ts (2405 bytes)
13create recipe-book/src/styles.css (80 bytes)
14create recipe-book/src/test.ts (642 bytes)
15create recipe-book/src/tsconfig.app.json (211 bytes)
16create recipe-book/src/tsconfig.spec.json (283 bytes)
17create recipe-book/src/typings.d.ts (104 bytes)
18create recipe-book/e2e/app.e2e-spec.ts (294 bytes)
19create recipe-book/e2e/app.po.ts (208 bytes)
20create recipe-book/e2e/tsconfig.e2e.json (235 bytes)
21create recipe-book/karma.conf.js (923 bytes)
22create recipe-book/package.json (1296 bytes)
23create recipe-book/protractor.conf.js (722 bytes)
24create recipe-book/tsconfig.json (363 bytes)
25create recipe-book/tslint.json (3012 bytes)
26create recipe-book/src/app/app.module.ts (316 bytes)
27create recipe-book/src/app/app.component.css (0 bytes)
28create recipe-book/src/app/app.component.html (1141 bytes)
29create recipe-book/src/app/app.component.spec.ts (986 bytes)
30create recipe-book/src/app/app.component.ts (207 bytes)
31Installing packages for tooling via yarn.
32yarn install v1.3.2
33info No lockfile found.
34[1/4] 🔍 Resolving packages...
35warning karma > log4js > nodemailer@2.7.2: All versions below 4.0.1 of Nodemailer are deprecated. See https://nodemailer.com/status/
36warning karma > log4js > loggly > request > node-uuid@1.4.8: Use uuid module instead
37warning karma > log4js > nodemailer > mailcomposer@4.0.1: This project is unmaintained
38warning karma > log4js > nodemailer > socks@1.1.9: If using 2.x branch, please upgrade to at least 2.1.6 to avoid a serious bug with socket data flow and an import issue introduced in 2.1.0
39warning karma > log4js > nodemailer > mailcomposer > buildmail@4.0.1: This project is unmaintained
40warning karma > log4js > mailgun-js > proxy-agent > socks-proxy-agent > socks@1.1.10: If using 2.x branch, please upgrade to at least 2.1.6 to avoid a serious bug with socket data flow and an import issue introduced in 2.1.0
41[2/4] 🚚 Fetching packages...
42[3/4] 🔗 Linking dependencies...
43[4/4] 📃 Building fresh packages...
44success Saved lockfile.
45✨ Done in 95.28s.
46Installed packages for tooling via yarn.
47Successfully initialized git.
48Project 'recipe-book' successfully created.

Angular CLI creates a folder with the same name as the project name. In our case its recipe-book. Let's quickly go through the files and folders which were just created.

1recipe-book
2├── README.md
3├── e2e
4├── karma.conf.js
5├── node_modules
6├── package.json
7├── protractor.conf.js
8├── src
9├── tsconfig.json
10├── tslint.json
11└── yarn.lock
  • Starting at the top, there is a README.md which has a basic overview of Angular CLI and available commands you can use.
  • The e2e folder is responsible for end-to-end tests.
  • The karma.conf.js is a config file for Karma which is used for unit testing.
  • The node_modules folder as you might already guess it's a folder where all of the packages and libraries were installed which are defined in package.json.
  • The package.json is the main place for your project configuration like scripts and dependencies.
  • The protractor.conf.js is a config file for Protractor which is used for end-to-end testing.
  • The tsconfig.json is a config file for TypeScript.
  • The tslint.json is a TypeScript linter which checks our code against style rules defined in this file.
  • The yarn.lock or package-lock.json are the lock files generated by yarn or npm depends which tool for installing packages you use.
  • Finally, the src folder is the place where in the future you are going to add all new components, services, modules, and other files for your application.
1src
2├── app
3│   ├── app.component.css
4│   ├── app.component.html
5│   ├── app.component.spec.ts
6│   ├── app.component.ts
7│   └── app.module.ts
8├── assets
9├── environments
10│   ├── environment.prod.ts
11│   └── environment.ts
12├── favicon.ico
13├── index.html
14├── main.ts
15├── polyfills.ts
16├── styles.css
17├── test.ts
18├── tsconfig.app.json
19├── tsconfig.spec.json
20└── typings.d.ts

Structure of the src folder is pretty much self-explanatory. But still, let's have a quick look at it.

  • By default, app folder is a starting point for our application.
  • Angular CLI is smart enough to detect the environment you work on and serve appropriate files based on that. The environments is build environments. From a preview, you may notice, that it has two files - environment.prod.tsand environment.ts as you might already guess one file is responsible for development while the other one for production environment.
  • Angular CLI generates a default favicon which is used as a placeholder and can be replaced later on.
  • The index.html is the first thing the user sees when accessing our application.
  • The main.ts is the core file which responsible for bootstrapping of our application.
  • The polyfills.ts file incorporates the mandatory and many of the optional polyfills as JavaScript import statements.
  • The styles.css and test.ts these files are related to applying styles and initialising the Angular testing environment.
  • Both tsconfig.*.json files are for TypeScript configuration. tsconfig.app.json is used for compiling the code, while tsconfig.spec.json for compiling the tests.
  • The typings.d.ts file provides the required typings for TypeScript.



ng serve

Yay, we have just generated a new application, but what we need to do to run it? It's really simple, all you need to do is to run ng serve in your terminal.

The ng-serve command starts a development server which listens on port 4200 by default. In case where port 4200 is already in use or you want to run it on a different port number, use --port to specify a different port. Example: $ ng serve --port 1337 Now when the development server is running, open your browser on http://localhost:1337/.

1$ ng serve
2** NG Live Development Server is listening on localhost:4200, open your browser on http://localhost:4200/ **
3Date: 2018-04-13T09:59:15.362Z l Hash: b1af346cc725e7d9fcb5
4Time: 7418ms
5chunk {inline} inline.bundle.js (inline) 5.79 kB [entry] [rendered]
6chunk {main} main.bundle.js (main) 25.8 kB [initial] [rendered]
7chunk {polyfills} polyfills.bundle.js (polyfills) 562 kB [initial] [rendered]
8chunk {styles} styles.bundle.js (styles) 34 kB [initial] [rendered]
9chunk {vendor} vendor.bundle.js (vendor) 7.44 MB [initial] [rendered]
10
11webpack: Compiled successfully.



ng generate

Whoa, your application is up and running and can be accessed through the browser. Now it's the time to expand it!

The Angular CLI has a truly awesome command to scaffold new blueprints - ng generate or ng g as an alias.

Here is a list of all possible blueprints you can scaffold using ng generate

  • component
  • directive
  • pipe
  • service
  • class
  • guard
  • interface
  • enum
  • module

All you need to do is to run ng g [blueprint-to-scaffold] [your-blueprint-name]. Let's imagine we need to create a new recipes component. Then we just run ng g component recipes.

1$ ng g component recipes
2create src/app/recipes/recipes.component.css (0 bytes)
3create src/app/recipes/recipes.component.html (26 bytes)
4create src/app/recipes/recipes.component.spec.ts (635 bytes)
5create src/app/recipes/recipes.component.ts (273 bytes)
6update src/app/app.module.ts (402 bytes)

The Angular CLI adds reference to componentsdirectives and pipes automatically in the app.module.ts.

Additionally, it's worth to mention the fact that ng generate support relative path generation for components. Let's quickly go through the certain amount of options ng generate offers us. In the first example, we are located in src/app/recipes:

  1. When we run ng g component recipe, new component is going to be generated in src/app/recipes/recipe.
  2. When we run ng g component ./recipe, new component is going to be generated in src/app/recipe.

In the second example, we are located in the src/app:

  1. When we run ng g component recipes/recipe, new component is going to be generated in src/app/recipes/recipe.



ng test

Testing your application is a good practice, but often developers tend to ignore this step whenever it's a business or personal projects due to lack of the time or desire.

"Write your ******* tests, always" — Mattias Petter Johansson

The Angular CLI is doing a great job at simplifying the developer lives by auto-generating testing files for us. The Angular CLI offers you unit and end-to-end testing. To run unit tests, open the terminal and run ng test. This step builds the Angular application and runs the test runner. You should see two different outputs: output in a console and browsers which was launched by Karma test runner.

1$ ng test
210% building modules 1/1 modules 0 active13 04 2018 09:18:54.509:WARN [karma]: No captured browser, open http://localhost:9876/
313 04 2018 09:18:54.515:INFO [karma]: Front-end scripts not present. Compiling...
413 04 2018 09:19:00.730:WARN [karma]: No captured browser, open http://localhost:9876/
513 04 2018 09:19:00.995:INFO [karma]: Karma v2.0.0 server started at http://0.0.0.0:9876/
613 04 2018 09:19:00.995:INFO [launcher]: Launching browser Chrome with unlimited concurrency
713 04 2018 09:19:01.000:INFO [launcher]: Starting browser Chrome
813 04 2018 09:19:02.686:INFO [Chrome 65.0.3325 (Mac OS X 10.13.3)]: Connected on socket jISkDcWPkf6iDQRWAAAA with id 62575173
9Chrome 65.0.3325 (Mac OS X 10.13.3): Executed 0 of 4 SUCCESS (0 secs / 0 secChrome 65.0.3325 (Mac OS X 10.13.3): Executed 1 of 4 SUCCESS (0 secs / 0.151Chrome 65.0.3325 (Mac OS X 10.13.3): Executed 2 of 4 SUCCESS (0 secs / 0.203Chrome 65.0.3325 (Mac OS X 10.13.3): Executed 3 of 4 SUCCESS (0 secs / 0.238Chrome 65.0.3325 (Mac OS X 10.13.3): Executed 4 of 4 SUCCESS (0 secs / 0.283Chrome 65.0.3325 (Mac OS X 10.13.3): Executed 4 of 4 SUCCESS (0.328 secs / 0.283 secs)

The same procedure goes for running end-to-end tests using protractor. You just run the ng e2e in a terminal.

1$ ng e2e
2** NG Live Development Server is listening on localhost:49152, open your browser on http://localhost:49152/ **
3Date: 2018-04-13T08:29:04.113Z l Hash: 8a08417e4497e11cece3
4Time: 7613ms
5chunk {inline} inline.bundle.js, inline.bundle.js.map (inline) 5.83 kB [entry] [rendered]
6chunk {main} main.bundle.js, main.bundle.js.map (main) 11.1 kB [initial] [rendered]
7chunk {polyfills} polyfills.bundle.js, polyfills.bundle.js.map (polyfills) 203 kB [initial] [rendered]
8chunk {styles} styles.bundle.js, styles.bundle.js.map (styles) 11.4 kB [initial] [rendered]
9chunk {vendor} vendor.bundle.js, vendor.bundle.js.map (vendor) 2.76 MB [initial] [rendered]
10(node:30726) [DEP0022] DeprecationWarning: os.tmpDir() is deprecated. Use os.tmpdir() instead.
11
12webpack: Compiled successfully.
13[09:29:04] I/file_manager - creating folder /Users/edvinsantonovs/Documents/repos/recipe-book/node_modules/webdriver-manager/selenium
14[09:29:05] I/update - chromedriver: unzipping chromedriver_2.37.zip
15[09:29:05] I/update - chromedriver: setting permissions to 0755 for /Users/edvinsantonovs/Documents/repos/recipe-book/node_modules/webdriver-manager/selenium/chromedriver_2.37
16[09:29:05] I/launcher - Running 1 instances of WebDriver
17[09:29:05] I/direct - Using ChromeDriver directly...
18Jasmine started
19
20 recipe-book App
21 ✓ should display welcome message
22
23Executed 1 of 1 spec SUCCESS in 0.685 sec.

In this case, the browser pops up, executes the application and dismiss once again after a short moment.




ng lint

When you start a new project with ng new, Angular CLI automatically generates a tslint.json with the set of rules of best practices for Angular. You can change them to suit your needs.

1{
2 "rulesDirectory": [
3 "node_modules/codelyzer"
4 ],
5 "rules": {
6 "arrow-return-shorthand": true,
7 "callable-types": true,
8 "class-name": true,
9 "comment-format": [
10 true,
11 "check-space"
12 ],
13 "curly": true,
14 "deprecation": {
15 "severity": "warn"
16 },
17 "eofline": true,
18 "forin": true,
19 "import-blacklist": [
20 true,
21 "rxjs",
22 "rxjs/Rx"
23 ],
24 "import-spacing": true,
25 "indent": [
26 true,
27 "spaces"
28 ],
29 ...
30 }
31}

To check if your project has any linting problems, just run ng lint in the terminal.

In the majority of the cases, you will either see that all files successfully passed linting

1$ ng lint
2
3All files pass linting.

or you will have a list of the files with lint error and description

1$ ng lint
2
3ERROR: ../recipe-book/src/app/app.module.ts[1, 31]: " should be '
4ERROR: ../recipe-book/src/app/app.module.ts[2, 26]: " should be '
5ERROR: ../recipe-book/src/app/app.module.ts[4, 30]: " should be '
6ERROR: ../recipe-book/src/app/app.module.ts[5, 34]: " should be '
7
8Lint errors found in the listed files.



ng build

Last but not the least command of the Angular CLI — ng build.

The ng build command compiles the application into an output directory.

1$ ng build
2Date: 2018-04-13T09:25:33.673Z l Hash: d08ebffadf328ed32e55
3Time: 7260ms
4chunk {inline} inline.bundle.js, inline.bundle.js.map (inline) 5.83 kB [entry] [rendered]
5chunk {main} main.bundle.js, main.bundle.js.map (main) 10.3 kB [initial] [rendered]
6chunk {polyfills} polyfills.bundle.js, polyfills.bundle.js.map (polyfills) 203 kB [initial] [rendered]
7chunk {styles} styles.bundle.js, styles.bundle.js.map (styles) 11.4 kB [initial] [rendered]
8chunk {vendor} vendor.bundle.js, vendor.bundle.js.map (vendor) 2.44 MB [initial] [rendered]

When the building is finished, you can find your application in the /dist directory.

1dist
2├── favicon.ico
3├── index.html
4├── inline.bundle.js
5├── inline.bundle.js.map
6├── main.bundle.js
7├── main.bundle.js.map
8├── polyfills.bundle.js
9├── polyfills.bundle.js.map
10├── styles.bundle.js
11├── styles.bundle.js.map
12├── vendor.bundle.js
13└── vendor.bundle.js.map

We just built our project, and you already can see the difference between the build and source code. The built project which is located in /dist looks tiny compared to the source code. That's great isn't it, but hold on there is one more trick!

By default, the development build target and environment are used.

Luckily enough, ng build offers us an option to specify build target(--target=production or --target=development) and environment file to be used with that build(--environment=dev or --environment=prod). Let's run production build by typing ng build --prod in a terminal. Whoa! It made our /dist folder even smaller with only a few files are left there.

1dist
2├── 3rdpartylicenses.txt
3├── favicon.ico
4├── index.html
5├── inline.ba64e9064e468420379a.bundle.js
6├── main.e41bc4358dddb8b53359.bundle.js
7├── polyfills.46af3f84a403e219371b.bundle.js
8└── styles.9c0ad738f18adc3d19ed.bundle.css

You might notice, several things:

  • There are no more *.map generated files.
  • There are hashes in generated file names.

Hashes in the file names are used as a part of the cache-busting technique. Every time we do the changes to our application, we need to redeploy the application to the server. In order to prevent our files to be cached on the server we add hashes to the file names. On every run of ng build --prod command, compiler randomly changes the hashes, so the server would treat the changed files as new ones.




Tips

Here is a list of tips I came across which might simplify your work with Angular CLI.

  • To create a new application without installing the node packages you can run ng new --skip-install.  Don't forget to install node modules later on.
  • To create a new application and change the default style file extension you can run ng new --style [scss | sass | less | styl].
  • Shorthand to generate a new component is ng g c [your-blueprint-name].
  • To generate a new component without test file, you need to run ng g c [your-blueprint-name] --spec false.
  • To run tests with coverage ng test --code-coverage. The coverage report will be in the /coverage directory.
© 2020 by Edvins Antonovs. All rights reserved.